Nuclear Weapons in Europe

A map of European nuclear installations.

Map of Nuclear Installations

Map of EU nuclear installations

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British Nuclear Weapons

Faslane/Coulport
Britain maintains a fleet of four "Trident" nuclear submarines, which also have a NATO role. The submarines are based at Faslane (on the west coast of Scotland), and the nuclear warheads are stored at the nearby base of Coulport.

Aldermaston/ Burghfield
There are research and development laboratories at AWE Aldermaston, and the warheads are assembled at Burghfield. Both of these factories are located near Reading, in the south of England.

Devonport
HMS Vanguard, one of the British Trident submarines is in Devonport dockyard undergoing a refit.




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French Nuclear Weapons

Ile Longue
France has a fleet of "Triomphant" class nuclear armed submarines, based at Ile Longue (near Brest). The first of the new generation, Le Triomphant, was admitted to active service in March 1997; the second, Le Téméraire, entered active service at the end of 1999. Le Vigilant is to enter service in 2004 when L’Indomptable retires. In 1999 the government confirmed that a fourth submarine of the new generation will be constructed to enter service in mid-2008.

Meanwhile M4 missiles are being replaced by the M45 missile with TN75 warheads.

Landivisiau
Landivisiau is the base for the French Navy's squadron of nuclear capable Super-Etendard planes, which carry ASMP missiles. These planes are attached to the aircraft carrier Charles-De-Gaulle, which is based at Toulon.

Toulon
Homeport of the aircraft carrier Charles-De-Gaulle, which carries the French Navy's squadron of nuclear capable Super-Etendard planes.

Luxeuil
French airforce base, home to Mirage 2000N planes, which carry ASMP missiles.

Istres
French airforce base, home to Mirage 2000N planes, which carry ASMP missiles.

La Hague
La Hague, near Cherbourg, is the world's largest nuclear reprocessing plant. It takes uranium and plutonium from nuclear power plants, and produces enriched uranium, MOX and up to 16 tonnes of Plutonium per year.

Limeil-Valenton
Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton (located in Villeneuvre-Sain-Georges, 15 km southeast of Paris), is the French central weapon design laboratory.

Valduc
Nuclear warheads are assembled and disassembled at the Centre d'Etudes de Valduc, near Issur-Tille, 25 miles north of Dijon.




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US Tactical Nuclear Weapons

The United States uses bases in Europe to store up to 480 tactical nuclear weapons. These weapons (type B61) are stored and maintained by American soldiers, but pilots from various European air forces are trained to use them. This is against Articles I and II of the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons).

For more information see: http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/euro/contents.asp

Lakenheath (England)
Lakenheath is a US airforce base in England. That until recently stored up to 110 tactical nuclear weapons. Their removal is part of a wider trend to relocate US resources within the region.

Kleine Brogel (Belgium)
Kleine Brogel is a Belgian Airforce base, which can store up to 20 US tactical nuclear weapons.

Volkel (Netherlands)
Volkel is a Dutch Airforce base, which can store up to 20 US tactical nuclear weapons.

Buchel (Germany)
Buchel is a German Airforce base which can store up to 20 US tactical nuclear weapons.

Ramstein (Germany)
Ramstein is a US base in Germany which is used to train military to handle nuclear weapons. It can store up to 130 US tactical nuclear weapons.

Ghedi Torre (Italy)
Ghedi Torre is an Italian airforce base. It can store up to 40 US tactical nuclear weapons.

Aviano (Italy)
Aviano is a US airforce base in Italy. It can store up to 50 US tactical nuclear weapons.

Araxos (Greece)
Araxos is an airforce base in Greece. Until January 2001 it was used to store US nuclear weapons.

Incirlik (Turkey)
Incirlik is an airforce base in Turkey. It can store up to 90 US tactical nuclear weapons, of which 40 are to be flown by the Turkish airforce, and 50 are for the US airforce.




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Russian Nuclear Weapons

For more details on the Russian nuclear stockpile, see the nuclear notebook in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.

Tatischevo
A regiment of six silo-based SS-27s entered service at the Tatishchevo missile base on December 21, 2003 The base also houses SS-19 missile silos. The number is likely to be increased beginning in 2010.

Kozelsk
SS-19 missile silos. The number is likely to be increased beginning in 2010.

Kostroma
The 10-warhead SS-24 missiles based at Kostroma were scheduled to be scrapped under START II, but Col. Gen. Nikolai Solovtsov, head of Strategic Missile Forces, announced in August 2002 that Russia would retain one division, probably the one at Kostroma. 15 rail-based SS-24s remain operational at Kostroma.

Teykovo
Road-mobile SS-25s are deployed at Teykovo.

Vypolzovo
Road-mobile SS-25s are deployed at Vypolzovo.

Yoshkar-Ola
Road-mobile SS-25s are deployed at Yoshkar-Ola

Yurya
Road-mobile SS-25s are deployed at Yurya.

Nerpichya
Operational Northern Fleet SSBNs (Typhoon class) are based on the Kola Peninsula at Nerpichya.

Yagelnaya
Operational Northern Fleet SSBNs (Typhoon and Delta class) are based on the Kola Peninsula at Yagelnaya

Severodvinsk
Three Borey-class SSBNs are under construction at the Severodvinsk shipyard in northern Russia, all behind schedule. The first boat, the Yuri Dolgoruki, is scheduled for delivery in 2005 or 2006. The keel of the second boat, the Alexander Nevsky, was laid down in March 2004. All three subs should be in service by 2012. Each will carry 12 SS-N-27 (Bulava-30) SLBMs, which will be MIRVed and have a range of more than 8,000 kilometers. A modified Typhoon SSBN will begin testing the SS-N-27 this year.

Engels
Engels Airbase is home to fourteen Tu-160 Blackjack bombers.
It is also home to thirteen Tu-95 MS16 Bear-H16s, and five Tu-95 MS6 Bear-H6s.
Russian strategic aircraft carry AS-15A/B (Russian designation Kh-55) air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs), AS-16 short-range attack missiles (SRAMs), and/or nuclear bombs.

Ryazan
Ryazan Airbase is home to four Tu-95 MS16 Bear-H16s, and two Tu-95 MS6 Bear-H6s.
Russian strategic aircraft carry AS-15A/B (Russian designation Kh-55) air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs), AS-16 short-range attack missiles (SRAMs), and/or nuclear bombs.

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